srImadh varavaramunayE nama:
srI vAnAchala mahAmunayE nama:
சிஷ்யனுக்கு ஆசார்ய அநுவர்த்தநம் பண்ணலாவது அவன் தேஹ பரிக்ரஹம் பண்ணியுருக்கிற நாளிலேயிறே. பின்புள்ளதெல்லாம் பகவதநுபவத்திலே அந்வயிக்குமிறே இருவர்க்கும்.
anuvarththanam - obeying and serving; pinbu = after reaching paramapadham. For a sishya, he can serve the AchArya when the AchArya is in this samsAram with a body. After reaching paramapadham, both AchArya and sishya engage in bhagavath anubhavam together. But even at that stage one should approach bhagavAn through AchArya.
Translator's note: This principle can be easily understood using the simple explanation of mAmunigaL in upadhEsa rathina mAlai 64th pAsuram:
thannAriyanukkuth thAn adimai seyvathu
avan innAdu thannil irukkum nAL
annEraRinthum athil AsaiyinRi AchAriyanaip pirinthiruppArAr
தன்னாரியனுக்குத் தான் அடிமை செய்வது
அவன் இந்நாடு தன்னில் இருக்கும் நாள்
அந்நேரறிந்தும் அதில் ஆசையின்றி ஆசாரியனைப் பிரிந்திருப்பாரார்
Simple translation: Speak up my mind! A sishya can serve an AchArya, when the AchArya is here in this samsAram (per bhagavAn's desire to uplift all). Even after understanding this, how can a sishya stay apart from his AchArya and not serve him?
It is highlighted by piLLai lOkAchAryar in srIvachana bhUshaNa dhivya sAsthram that a sishya must fully take care of the AchArya's bodily needs (like food, clothing, shelter, any physical help, etc). Same principle is explained by mAmunigaL in the vyAkyAnams as well as in upadhEsa rathina mAlai which brings out the essence of srIvachana bhUshaNam.
In parampadham also sishya is serving bhagavAn through his AchArya since AchArya is the one who facilitated the sishya to enter into parampadham. ALavandhAr highlights his servitude to nAthamunigaL in his sthOthra rathnam slOkam 2 by saying "athra parathra chApi nithyam yadhIya charaNau madhIyam charaNam" (அத்ர பரத்ர சாபி நித்யம் யதீய சரணௌ மதீயம் சரணம்) - I will be surrendered to the lotus feet of nAthamunigaL in this samsAram and paramapadham.
தேஹாத்மாபிமாநியானபோது தேஹத்திலே அஹம்புத்தியைப் பண்ணும். தேஹாத் வ்யதிரிக்தம் ஒன்றுண்டு என்றறிந்தபோது ஆத்மாவிலே அஹம் புத்தியைப்பண்ணும். தன்னை பகவச்சேஷபூதனாக அநுஸந்தித்தபோது தன்னை ததீய சேஷத்வ பர்யந்தமாக அநுஸந்திக்கக் கடவன்.
When the AthmA considers the impermanent body as oneself, that will lead to such knowledge (that the body and soul are the same) becoming established. When he understands that the jIvAthmA (soul) is different from the body, he will understand himself as "I" (svAthanthriyam - independence). When the jIvAthmA undestands that he is a servant of bhagavAn, as said in "uRRathum un adiyArkku adimai" (உற்றதும் உன் அடியார்க்கு அடிமை), he will start considering himself as a servant of bhAgavathas (who are the dear servants of bhagavAn).
Translator's note: Here jIvAthmA's progress from one stage to another is nicely explained. bhagavAn is constantly guiding the jIvAthmA from within and slowly nurturing the knowledge of the jIvAthmA leading up to full realization of the true nature of the jIvAthmA. azhagiya maNavALa perumAL nAyanAr beautifully explains this principle in his AchArya hrudhayam chUrNikai 15.
athu thAnum Asthikya vivEka anyasEshathvasvasvAthanthriya nivruththi pArathanthriyangaLai uNdAkkina vazhi.
அது தானும் ஆஸ்திக்ய விவேக அந்யசேஷத்வஸ்வஸ்வாதந்த்ரிய நிவ்ருத்தி பாரதந்த்ரியங்களை உண்டாக்கின வழி.
In the previous chUrNikais, nAyanAr explained bhagavAn's motherly forbearance towards all jIvAthmAs. Just like a mother will let the child be independant and commit mistakes but quickly give remedies and teach the child to become better, bhagavAn also, lets the jIvAthmA takes the course of actions as explained in sAsthram and guides the jIvAthmA in the upward progress by showing the proper avenues for such progress. bhagavAn's guidance (in different steps) is highlighted in this chUrNikai and mAmunigaL presents us with a classical commentary for this chUrNikai.
- First, to bring faith in a person who is being nAsthika (not accepting sAsthram as pramANam), bhagavAn shows them some aspects of sAsthram which gives that person immediate results. For example: if a person has enemies, bhagavAn shows him syEna yAgam (that which destroys enemies) through some one and the person develops some faith in sAsthram by the virtue of his enemy being destroyed after performing that syEna yAgam purely out of distress to get rid of enemies. This is the first step in progress - without faith in sAsthram - one cannot make any progress in spiritual life.
- Once there is some faith in sAsthram, bhagavAn shows that the jIvAthmA is different from the body. bhagavAn shows jyOthishtOmam, etc., which says that there is pleasures to be found in svarga lOkam (heavenly planet) which can be enjoyed once the jIvAthmA takes a different body. By this, the person, understands the difference between soul and body and there by progresses a bit more.
- After that bhagavAn shows that these pleasures in the svarga (heaven), etc are temporary and there is permanent bliss in paramapadham by serving bhagavAn and that can be accomplished through bhakthi to bhagavAn. Thus the jIvAthmA understands that he should not be at service to any one else other bhagavAn to achieve permanent bliss.
- After that bhagavAn shows that even bhakthi to bhagavAn when done with a small tinge of ahankAram is detrimental to the nature of jIvAthmA and he should be simply and fully surrendered to bhagavAn and give up any thought of sva svAthathriyam (independence).
- Finally, he shows pArathanthriyam - that state of being totally dependent to bhagavAn and existing purely for the pleasure of bhagavAn alone.
திவ்யமங்கள விக்ரஹமும், விக்ரஹகுணங்களும், திவ்யாத்மஸ்வரூபமும், ஸ்வரூப குணங்களும் நித்யமுக்தர்க்கு ப்ராப்யமானாப்போலே, முமுக்ஷுவாய் ப்ரபந்நனான இவ்வதிகாரிக்கு த்வய சரீரமே ப்ராப்யமாயிருக்குமிறே.
mumukshu = one who desires mOksham; The nithyas and mukthas aim and long for bhagavAn's
- divine form,
- auspicious qualities relating to his divine body like saukumAryam (tender nature), saundharyam (part-by-part beauty), lAvaNyam (overall beauty), saugandhyam (divine bodily fragrance), yauvanam (youth), etc
- as said in "eNNum ponnuruvAy" - bhagavAn's dhivyAthma svarUpam (true nature) and
- auspicious qualities relating to his svarUpam like gyAnam (knowledge), shakthi (power), etc
Translator's note: Our AchAryas are fully attached to dhvaya mahA manthram. Of the rahasya thrayams (3 confidential matters), thirumanthram is most pleasing to sAsthram (since it clearly reveals the relationship between jIvAthmA and paramAthmA), charama slOkam is most pleasing to bhagavAn (since it clearly establishes that bhagavAn is the only upAyam) and dhvaya mahA manthram is most pleasing to AchArya (since it explicitly reveals that pirAtti is the purushakAram, bhagavAn is the upAyam, they both are together always and we surrender to the lotus feet of bhagavAn to pray for eternal kainkaryam to emperumAn and pirAtti together).
srI ranganAtha instructed emperumAnAr to stay in srIrangam with constant recital of dhvaya mahA manthram and constant meditation of its meanings (highlighted by srI rAmAnuja himself in gadhya thrayam).
piLLai lOkAchAryar identifies "japthavyam guruparamparaiyum dhvayamum" in srIvachana bhUshaNa dhivya sAsthram - this is already explained in detail in 120th entry.
maNavALa mAmunigaL fully demonstrated this principle in his life. Let us see that to understand this most important principle clearly and firmly.
In pUrva dhinacharyai, dhEvarAja guru (eRumbi appA) documents the divine activities of maNavALa mAmunigaL. In the 9th slOkam, he highlights as follows:
manthra rathna anusandhAna santhatha spurithAdharam
thadharththa thathva nidhyAna sannadhdha pulakOdhgamam
மந்த்ர ரத்ந அநுஸந்தாந ஸந்தத ஸ்புரிதாதரம்
ததர்த்த தத்வ நித்யாந ஸந்நத்த புலகோத்கமம்
Simple translation: mAmunigaL's lips are constantly reciting dhvaya mahA manthram (which is called the manthra rathanm - gem among manthrams). His body is manifesting divine reactions due to constant meditation of the meanings of dhvayam (which is nothing but thiruvAimozhi).
nAyanAr identifies that thiruvAimozhi is nothing but full explanation of dhvya mahA manthram. This is highlighted in AchArya hrudhayam chUrNikai 210.
dhvayArththam dhIrgga charaNAgathi enRathu sArasangrahaththilE.
த்வயார்த்தம் தீர்க்க சரணாகதி என்றது ஸாரஸங்க்ரஹத்திலே.
The most merciful mAmunigaL explains in the vyAkyAnam that the ten principles that are explained in dhvayam (sriya:pathithvam, purushakArathvam, etc) are fully and clearly elaborated in thiruvAimozhi as well. mAmunigaL goes on to fully reproduce the sAra sangraham grantham of piLLai lOkAchAryar (so that we dont even have the trouble of searching for that grantham, opening it and reading it separately) - this is the ultimate manifestation of compassion (in making it as simple as possible to the readers) and integrity (fully depending on pUrvAchAryas works).
பகவத் விஷயத்திலே நெஞ்சை வைத்தநுபவிக்கையே யாத்ரையானவனுக்கு அந்யபரனானவன் ஒப்பாகப்போருமோ.
A person who is constantly engaged in relishing bhagavAn's nature, name, form, auspicious qualities, etc can not be compared in any way to a person who is taken shelter of dhEvathAntharams (other dhEvathas).
Translator's note: A bhAgavatha is contantly engaged in glorifying bhagavAn. In bhagavath gIthA, krishNa highlights in 10.9 that "My devotees constantly remember me, they hold me as their life breath and discuss my activities amongst each other. By such discussions of my divine activities constantly, they (both the speakers and the listeners) derive great satisfaction and pleasure". In 9.14 he identifies:
sathatham kIrthayanthO mAm yathanthas cha dhruda vrathA:
namasyanthas cha mAm bhakthyA nithyayukthA upAsathE
ஸததம் கீர்த்தயந்தோ மாம் யதந்தச் ச த்ருட வ்ரதா:
நமஸ்யந்தச் ச மாம் பக்த்யா நித்யயுக்தா உபாஸதே
My devotees are constantly engaged in singing my glories. They are firmly situated in me. They engage in constantly worshipping me and always long for my association.
Such devotees are so great and cannot be compared to any ordinary persons who are behind other dhEvathas for petty benefits.
In thiruvAimozhi 4.5.8, nammAzhwAr declares "iniyAvar nigar agalvAnaththE?" (இனியாவர் நிகர் அகல்வானத்தே?) - AzhwAr being overwhelmed at emperumAn's love and affection towards him and proclaims even in srIvaikuntam (parampadham) there is no one like him to glorify emperumAn. embAr, after enjoying the divine form of emperumAnAr, declares that "illai enakku ethir.." (இல்லை எனக்கு எதிர்) - no one is more fortunate than me in having the grace of emperumAnAr. This is why madhurakavi AzhwAr fully glorifies nammAzhwAr in kaNNinuN chiruthAmbu and thiruvarangathu amudhanAr fully glorifies emperumAnAr and establish that bhAgavathas are incomparable. They establish that bhAgavathas are even greater (more merciful, etc) than bhagavAn himself, what to speak of dhEvathAntharaparars (ones who worship other dhEvathas).
ஆகிஞ்சந்யமும் ஸ்வரூபமும் ப்ரபத்திக்கு பரிகரமிறே.
Akinchanyam = absolute destitution (without having anything); svarUpam = true nature (that the AthmA is totally for bhagavAn's service); prapathi - the act of praying to bhagavAn to be our upAyam (means). Absolute destitution and following our true nature are subsidiary aspects of being surrendered to bhagavAn.
Translator's note: To accept bhagavAn else as the total refuge, one must first understand that one does not have anything on ones own to accomplish the ultimate goal. nammAzhwAr identifies this principle in thiruvAimozhi 5.7.1 - "nORRa nOnbilEn nuNNarivilEn..." (நோற்ற நோன்பிலேன் நுண்ணரிவிலேன்...) - I dont have karma yOgam and I dont have gyAna yOgam (and naturally no bhakthi yOgam as well), but I am fully dependent on you to protect me. This same principle is explained by ALavandhAr in sthOthra rathnam slOkam 22 - "na dharmanishttOsmi na chAthmavEdhI na bhakthimAn..." (ந தர்மநிஷ்ட்டோஸ்மி ந சாத்மவேதீ ந பக்திமான்...) - I dont have karmayOgam, gyAna yOgam and bhakthi yOgam ... I am fully surrendered unto your lotus feet only.
Also, one should understand that the true identity of jIvAthmA is being fully dependent on bhagavAn alone. For prapathi, these two principles are subsidiary.
இருவருமான சேர்த்தியிலேயிறே இவனடிமை செய்வது. அச்சேர்த்தி தன்னையேயிறே இவனுபாயமாகப் பற்றுவதும். இத்தால் சொல்லிற்றாகிறது நித்யப்ராப்யத்வமிறே. நித்யாபூர்வவிஷயமிறே நித்யப்ராப்யமாக வல்லது.
jIvAthmA's ultimate aim is to serve the divine couple (pirAtti and perumAL) as identified in "srImathE nArAyaNAya nama:". jIvAthmA approaches bhagavAn as the upAyam when the divine couple is together as identified in "srIman nArAyaNa charaNau charaNam prapadhyE". From this, it is established that, the eternal benediction for the jIvAthmA is to serve the divine couple eternally. That which is apUvam (unprecedented/uncomparable - fully relishable) must be the ultimate goal.
Translator's note: emperumAn and pirAtti are always together. nammAzhwAr quotes pirAtti's words in thiruvAimozhi 6.10.10 - "agalagillEn iRaiyum" (அகலகில்லேன் இறையும்) - Not even for a moment, I can think of leaving the divine chest of srIman nArAyaNan - says pirAtti. Just like it is most appropriate for a child to serve the parents together, it is appropriate for the jIvAthmA to serve perumAL and pirAtti together. This principle is beautifully explained by piLLai lOkAchAryar in mumukshuppadi dhvaya prakaraNAm while explaining the "srImathE" sabdham in the second part of dhvaya mahA manthram. Let us quickly see the meanings of that section here through the wonderful vyAkyAnam of mAmunigaL:
- sUthram 166 - When bhagavAn is upAyam, pirAtti is purushakAram; When bhagavAn is the prApyam (goal), pirAtti is also part of that goal and she will enhance/nourish the kainkaryam performed by the jIvAthmA.
- In the first part of dhvaya mahA manthram, pirAtti's purushakArathvam (recommendation) is explained. When bhagavAn sees the defects of jIvAthmA, pirAtti recommends to him that he should only see the act of the jIvAthmA in approaching him and should let his mercy take precedence over the defects of the jIvAthmA. Thus she pacifies bhagavAn and convinces him to accept the jIvAthmA.
- In the second part of dhvaya mahA manthram, pirAtti is explained as part of the goal along with bhagavAn. She also encourages jIvAthmA to perform kainkaryams and when the jIvAthmA engages in such kainkaryam, she highlights that to bhagavAn and brings more joy to him.
- sUthram 167 - Here, whatever is explained in thirumanthram as kainkaryam (in "nArAyaNAya") is explained in detail. In thirumanthram, bhagavAn's relationship with pirAtti is implicit only. But here it is explicitly explained in detail.
- sUthram 168 - iLaya perumAL (lakshmaNan) highlights that he wants to serve to the pleasure of both pirAtti and perumAL and performed the same. This is the proper conduct for a srIvaishNava - to perform kainkaryam to both perumAL and pirAtti together.
- sUthram 169 - jIvAthmA's servitude is fulfilled and relished in presence of the divine couple. Just like a child's service to both the mother and father is truly relishable, jIvAthmA's service to pirAtti and bhagavAn is also truly relishable.
இவனுடைய அபராதகாலம் பார்த்திருந்து ப்ரதிபத்தி பண்ணுகைக்கு அவனுக்கு அவகாசமில்லை - அவள் கூட இருக்கையாலே.
Iswaran does not have the opportunity to contemplate the defects of jIvAthmA and punish him. As pirAtti is always with him, she promptly protects the jIvAthmA from being punished by bhagavAn. prathipathi - contemplation.
Translator's note: pirAtti is very concerned about jIvAthmAs. She is always looking out for the well-being of the same. Thus, She ensures that bhagavAn does not become angry seeing the defects of the jIvAthmA and punish him according to sAsthram. She brings the compassion out of bhagavAn's heart and ensures that the jIvAthmA is accepted/protected by bhagavAn. This aspect of pirAtti is called "purushakAram". This principle of purushakAram is explained in detail by piLLai lOkAchAryar in mumukshuppadi in dhvaya prakaraNam in a very detailed manner. Let us see some aspects of that section through the wonderful vyAkyAnam of mAmunigaL:
- sUthram 127 - bhagavAn's heart is always cool and soothing like a moon. But when he sees the offenses committed by the jIvAthmA, he becomes angry (since he is obliged to do that per sAsthram). In such cases, he becomes pacified by the words and acts of pirAtti.
- sUthram 128 - Her recommendation is infallible - it will always work due to two reasons. Since she has true concern for her children (all jIvAthmAs) with a motherly affection and since she is the divine consort of bhagavAn and is very dear to bhagavAn - bhagavAn will always listen to her words.
- sUthram 129 - hanumAn was very angry with the rAkshasis who tortured sIthA pirAtti after the vanquishing of rAvaNa. But pirAtti convinces him to change his mind and asks him to show mercy on those rAkshasis. If she can convince hanumAn, what is the difficulty for her in convincing bhagavAn who is so attached to her.
- sUthram 135 - Because of her presence with srI rAma, kAkAsuran was protected; Due to her absence, rAvaNan was killed.
வெறுமையும் ஸ்வரூபமும் இரண்டும் ப்ரபத்திக்கு பரிகரமிறே.
Same as 125th entry.
அதிகாரிஸ்வரூபமாவது அநந்யகதித்வமும், ப்ராப்யருசியும், ஸ்வரூபப்ரகாசமும் என்கிற இவையிறே.
The true nature of an adhikAri (one who is qualified) must have the following attributes: accepting bhagavAn as the only refuge (and thus having no other refuge), having attachment towards kainkaryam to bhagavAn, manifesting the true nature of self (i.e., exhibiting that he is a true servant of bhagavAn).
Translator's note: Here 3 points are identified as the qualities that are required in a prapanna (one who is surrendered to bhagavAn). Let us see them briefly:
- ananyagathithvam - accepting that there is no other refuge. One must fully surrender to bhagavAn and have no other attachment. When bhagavAn sees that the person is attached to any other dhEvatha or ones own svAthanthriyam (independence), he lets the person go through the cycle of karmA through such other upAyams and worshipping of such dhEvathas. Often we hear "saNappanAr kaNda brahmAsthram pOlE" (சணப்பனார் கண்ட ப்ரஹ்மாஸ்த்ரம் போலே) - when some one is tied down by brahmAsthram, if that person is tied with any other rope, the brahmAsthram will give up and leave its hold. Similarly, a person surrendered to bhagavAn should not engage in any other dhEvatha or sva svAthanthriyam (ones own independence). piLLai lOkAchAryar has written a separate rahasya grantham called "prapanna parithrANam" which explains that except bhagavAn no one else can protect us.
- prApya ruchi - to be a prapanna, one must have the desire to reach bhagavAn and serve him. This is highlighted by our pUrvAchAryas as "ichchaiyE adhikAram" (இச்சையே அதிகாரம்) - one must certainly have the desire. This is why emperumAnAr established many AchAryas and instructed them to give this divine knowledge to every one who has the desire. This is explained by mAmunigaL in upadhEsa rathina mAlai "OrAN vazhiyAi upadhEsiththAr munnOr ErAr ethirAsar innaruLAl pArulagil AsaiyudaiyOrkkellAm kUrum..." (ஓராண் வழியாய் உபதேசித்தார் முன்னோர் ஏரார் எதிராசர் இன்னருளால் பாருலகில் ஆசையுடையோர்க்கெல்லாம் கூறும்...) - Out of his overwhelming compassion, emperumAnAr ordered that this divine knowledge is revealed to the ones who have the desire.
- svarUpa prakAsam - one must manifest the understanding of ones understanding of the true nature of self. It is said in sAsthram that "akinchithkarasya sEshatva anupapaththi:" - it is the nature of the jIvAthmA to serve bhagavAn, if such service is not manifested, then such jIvAthmA loses its identity itself.
த்ரிவித சேதநரையும் மாத்ருத்வ ப்ரயுக்தமாக நியமிக்கும். ஈச்வரனை ப்ரணயித்வ நிபந்தநமாக நியமிக்கும்.
chEthanas (jIvAthmAs) are of 3 categories - bhadhdha (jIvAthmAs bound in this world), mukthas (ones who were bound before but are free now and are in paramapadham) and nithyas (eternally free and are in parampadham). pirAtti controls all jIvAthmAs with a motherly attitude. pirAtti controls bhagavAn being a loving wife.
Translator's note: pirAtti has the responsibility of reforming/controlling both jIvAthmAs and emperumAn. She controls the nithyas and mukthas and guides/directs them in their service to bhagavAn. She reforms the bhaddhas through her compassion and guides them towards bhagavAn. She controls bhagavAn through her relationship as the divine consort and guides him to protect the jIvAthmAs by pacifying his anger towards them. This principle is explained by piLLai lOkAchAryar in srI vachana bhUshaNa dhivya sAsthram while explaining the principle of purushakAram. Let us see some of those sUthrams here:
- sUthram 11 - She reforms both bhadhdha chEthanas (bound souls) and bhagavAn through her instructions.
- sUthram 12 - Through her instructions - the binding for karmA for both bhagavAn and bhadhdhAthmAs will be destroyed. jIvAthmA is bound to enjoy the fruits of his karmA. bhagavAn is bound to give the fruits of the jIvAthmAs karmA. Through her instructions she breaks both the bindings by kindling the compassion of bhagavAn to come to the forefront to ignore the karmAs of the jIvAthmA.
- sUthram 13 - When the jIvAthmA is not reformed by her instructions, she showers her mercy on the jIvAthmA and purifies him through her mercy. When bhagavAn's heart is not changed by her instructions, she manifests her divine beauty and mesmerizes him with that and immediately controls him for the well-being of the jIvAthmA.
Full series can be viewed at: http://ponnadi.blogspot.in/p/divine-revelations-of-lokacharya.html.