Divine revelations of lOkAchArya - 11

srI:
srImathE rAmAnujAya nama:
srImadh varavaramunayE nama:
srI vAnAchala mahAmunayE nama:

Note: srI U. vE. gOpAlakrishNa dhAsar (kOnAr) who was living in chennai and a sishya of kOil kandhAdai vAdhUla aNNan swamy compiled a set of beautiful phrases/sentences from nampiLLai's eedu (documented by vadakku thiruvIdhi piLLai) vyAkyAnam long ago. kOil vidhwAn srI U. vE. R narasimhAchAryar swamy (paramapadhavAsi) wrote simple thamizh meanings for those phrases/sentences. This book (https://docs.google.com/file/d/0ByVemcKfGLucbWJNTUMzVS1KTzA/edit?usp=sharing) was originally released on 7-1-68 and was re-published by puthur raghurAman swamy (editior: srI sailEsa dhayApAthram magazine). In this series we are relishing this great compilation with the english translation for the same.


101. pirivil guNAnusandhAnam paNNi dharikkalAm. avan sannidhiyil avanaiyozhiya araikshaNamum mukam mARiyirukkumathukku mERpatta mudivillai.

பிரிவில் குணாநுஸந்தானம் பண்ணி தரிக்கலாம். அவன் ஸந்நிதியில் அவனையொழிய அரைக்ஷணமும் முகம் மாறியிருக்குமதுக்கு மேற்பட்ட முடிவில்லை. 


sIthA pirAtti meditating on srI rAma, ANdAL nAchiyAr meditating on krishNa

During the times of separation from emperumAn, one can sustain themselves by meditating on the divine auspicious qualities of bhagavAn. But in his presence, we cannot take our eyes and thoughts of him. There is nothing worse than focussing on some thing else in his presence.

Translator's note: sIthA pirAtti sustained herself during her stay in asOka vanam (forest) by meditating on the auspicious qualities of srI rAma. AzhwArs sustained themselves in samsAram by constantly meditating on the auspicious qualities of srIman nArAyaNan and engaging in dhivya dhEsa kainkaryams. But ANdAL was different. She was suffering so much in separation from bhagavAn that she asks "How can I manage this sorrow of separation by just meditating on your auspicious qualities?" in nAchiyAr thirumozhi 8.3 - "gOvindhan guNam pAdi AvikAththiruppEnE?" (கோவிந்தன் குணம் பாடி ஆவிகாத்திருப்பேனே?). That is the speciality of ANdAL over others. Once, we have the presence of bhagavAn, we cannot see anything else other than bhagavAn. It is said in vishNu sUktham - "sadhA pasyanthi sUraya:" (ஸதா பச்யந்தி ஸூரய:) - the nithyasUris are always seeing bhagavAn (and nothing else. thiruppANAzhwAr said in the last pAsuram of his amalanAdhipirAn - "en amudhinaik kaNda kaNgaL maRRonRinaik kANAvE" (என் அமுதினைக் கண்ட கண்கள் மற்றொன்றினைக் காணாவே) - my eyes which saw the nectar like form of srIranganAthan will not see anything else.


102. thanthAmaiyaRiyAvittAl AptharvAyilE kEttaRiyavENum.

தந்தாமையறியாவிட்டால் ஆப்தர்வாயிலே கேட்டறியவேணும்.


 srI rAmAnuja and his sishyas - ideal AchArya and ideal sishyas

When the jIvAthmA does not understand his true nature, he should understand the same through AchAryas who are trustworthy source of knowledge.

Translator's note: jIvAthmA is the eternal servitor of bhagavAn. He is also different from the body. If one does not understand this, an AchAryan should be approached. Aptha means trustworthy source. An AchAryan coming in the spiritual lineage from bhagavAn himself is the most trustworthy source since they fully depend on sAsthram and is himself self-realized to explain the essential principles to others. krishNa explains this in bhagavath gIthA 4.34 "thadh vidhdhi pranNipAthEna pari prachnEna sEvayA, upadhEkshanthi thE gyAnam gyAninas thathva dharchiNa:" (தத் வித்தி ப்ரணிபாதேந பரி ப்ரச்நேன ஸேவயா, உபதேக்ஷந்தி தே ஜ்ஞாநம் ஜ்ஞாநிநஸ் தத்வ தர்சிந:) - Approach a knowlegable persons (AchAryan), worship him and serve him. Such realized soul will show you the truth since he has seen it. 


103. ArththanukkanRO palaprApthiyuLLathu.

ஆர்த்தனுக்கன்றோ பலப்ராப்தியுள்ளது.


 nammAzhwAr - wanted to reach emperumAn immediately

Arthan means the ones who cannot sustain himself in this material world and suffers like being in fire. Only for such persons who are fully surrendered to bhagavAn and want to be immediately relieved from samsAram, the goal will be achieved.

Translator's note: There are two types of prapannas (surrendered jIvAthmAs) - Artha prapanna (the one who cannot sustain oneself even for a moment in this samsAram) and truptha prapanna (the one can sustain for some time in samsAram by engaging bhagavath/bhAgavatha/AchArya kainkaryam). Of these two, Artha prapannas are the most advanced personalities and their state of mind is explained here - they simply cannot even stay in this samsAram since for them it is like standing on fire. They really want to be freed from bondage at once and want to fully engage in kainkaryam in paramapadham. nammAzhwAr and all other AzhwArs are explained as Artha prapannas by our pUrvAchAryas. nammAzhwAr reveals in his first pAsuram in his prabhandham (thiruviruththam - 1) itself that he can no longer be in this samsAram.


104. purushakAram munnAgath thanpakkal pugunthArkkuth than thiruvuLLamirangum.

புருஷகாரம் முன்னாகத் தன்பக்கல் புகுந்தார்க்குத் தன் திருவுள்ளமிரங்கும்.


 sIthA pirAtti saving kAkAsura from the wrath of srI rAma

When we approach bhagavAn through the recommendation of pirAtti (srI mahAlakshmi), bhagavAn will show his kindness and protect us.

Translator's note: purushakAram means "the act which makes a noble man fulfill his commitments and justifies his auspicious qualities" - here it is explained in context of srI mahAlakshmi who ensures that bhagavAn accepts the jIvAthmAs inspite of the jIvAthmAs having committed so much sins. By accepting such jIvAthmAs, bhagavAn's auspicious qualities such as krupai (mercy), vAthsalyam (motherly forbearance), etc becomes manifested (its always there - but srI mahAlakshmi brings them out). It is an act of recommendation by pirAtti. When we approach bhagavAn without that recommendation, bhagavAn's other quality of being neutral towards all jIvAthmAs and giving the result based on jIvAthmAs action may be manifested since bhagavAn is supremely independent. That is why it is always recommended to approach bhagavAn through pirAtti. piLLai lOkAchAryar explains this in mumukshuppadi beautifully through an example. 

sUthram 135 - ivaL sannidhiyAle kAkam thalai peRRathu; athu illAmaiyAlE rAvaNan mudinthAn (இவள் ஸந்நிதியாலே காகம் தலை பெற்றது; அது இல்லாமையாலே ராவணன் முடிந்தான்).

kAkAsuran (jayanthan - indhran's son) got saved from srI rAma by the presence of sIthA pirAtti even though he committed the most abominable offense; but rAvaNan was killed by srI rAma due to her absence.


105. samsAri mukthanAnAl avanudaiya leelObakaraNamum bOgOpakaraNamum samamAyth thORRakkadavathu. AkArAntharamAna smruthiyillaiyE. thadhIyathvAkAraththAlE nithya vibhUthiyOdokkath thORRumaththanai.

ஸம்ஸாரி முக்தனானால் அவனுடைய லீலோபகரணமும் போகோபகரணமும் ஸமமாய்த் தோற்றக்கடவது. ஆகாராந்தரமான ஸ்ம்ருதியில்லையே. ததீயத்வாகாரத்தாலே நித்ய விபூதியோடொக்கத் தோற்றுமத்தனை.

When a samsAri (jIvAthmA who is bound in this material world) becomes mukthan (freed from material clutches and reaches paramapadham), for such persons, material world (tool for his pastime) and spiritual world (tool for his true enjoyment) will look the same.  Since, the mukthAthmA's thoughts are no longer driven by karmA, he does not distinguish between spiritual and material world as both are properties of bhagavAn and fully under his control.

Translator's note: Everything is pervaded by bhagavAn. When a jIvAthmA becomes free from the bondage of karmA and becomes a mukthan, he clearly understands that. This is the state of proper state of understanding that everything is favourable only. This is why AzhwArs also praised bhagavAn's variegated manifestation of material world also. nammAzhwAr is amazed by the variegated nature of the material world (vichithra vibhUthi) as revealed by bhagavAn himself in thiruvAimozhi 7.8 "mAyA vAmananE" (மாயா வாமனனே) padhigam. The same principle of everything being favourable to jIvAthmAs due to everything being pervaded by bhagavAn is explained precisely by piLLai lOkAchAryar in the final section of chith prakaraNam in thathva thrayam and can be understood clearly by studying the commentary of mAmunigaL for that section. An example is given by nampiLLai himself  - A king has beautiful palaces and horrible prison-houses as part of his kingdom. For the prince (who is the son of the king), both the palace and the prison-house are part of his wealth. Similarly, for mukthAthmAs (or AzhwArs who are as good as (or even better than) mukthAthmAs even when they are in this world), bhagavAn's wealth in both spiritual world and material world are enjoyable. This is also explained in thiruvAimozhi 6.3.1 vyAkyAnam.


106. svarUpam visathamAnAl nAn ennavumAy adiyEn ennavumAyk kANiruppathu.

ஸ்வரூபம் விசதமானால் நான் என்னவுமாய் அடியேன் என்னவுமாய்க் காணிருப்பது.

Once the jIvAthma's true nature/identity is understood, "I - the jIvAthmA, am not the body but the soul" and "I am an eternal servitor of bhagavAn" will be firmly established.

Translator's note: In thiruvAimozhi 8.8 - "kaNgaL sivanthu" (கண்கள் சிவந்து) padhigam, bhagavAn reveals the nature of jIvAthmA clearly. In this padhigam, bhagavAn first reveals his own nature and glories to nammAzhwAr in the first 2 and half pAsurams. In the remaining pAsurams, he reveals the nature and glories of jIvAthmA (the soul). In the 2nd pAsuram, AzhwAr says "adiyEn uLLAn udal uLLAn" (அடியேன் உள்ளான் உடல் உள்ளான்); adiyEn uLLAn - in this bhagavAn is explained as the in-dwelling soul (antharyAmi - paramAthmA) of the jIvAthmA (adiyEn - dhAsan). The fact that, AzhwAr used "adiyEn" (dhAsan - servitor) instead of "en" (aham - I/me) itself indicates that the jIvAthmA is an eternal servitor of paramAthmA primarily. Yet it also implies that the jIvAthmA is different from body - since AzhwAr immediately says "udal uLLAn" (bhagavAn is in my body).


107. abimatha vishayaththai pirinthAl kaNdathellAm athuvAyth thORRum.

அபிமத விஷயத்தை பிரிந்தால் கண்டதெல்லாம் அதுவாய்த் தோற்றும்.


 srI rAma searching for sIthA pirAtti

When we are separated from the one who is dear to us, everything will look like that person.

Translator's note: nammAzhwAr highlights the unlimited glories of srI rAma in thiruvAimozhi 7.5.2. He goes through more sufferings than even a jIvAthmA who is bound by karmA will go through, such as being separated from his dear consort sIthA pirAtti by rAvaNan. At that time, when rAvaNan takes sIthA pirAtti captive and goes away, srI rAmA becomes thoroughly depressed and starts looking for sIthA pirAtti everywher. Out of bewilderment, whatever he saw resembled sIthA pirAtti to him. nammAzhwAr also, when singing in separation, sees everything in relation to emperumAn only. This can be seen in thiruvAimozhi 4.4 "maNNai irunthu thuzhAvi" (மண்ணை இருந்து துழாவி) padhigam. This is beautifully narrated by mAmunigaL in his thiruvAimozhi nURRanthAdhi 34th pAsuram (which summarizes the essence of the whole padhigam in thiruvAimozhi).

maNNulagil munkalandhu mAlpirigaiyaal
maaRan peNNilaimaiyAykkAdhal piththERi
eNNidil mun pOli mudhalAna poruLai  avanAy ninaindhu
mElvizhundhAn maiyaldhanin vIRu

மண்ணுலகில் முன்கலந்து மால்பிரிகையால்
மாறன் பெண்ணிலைமையாய்க்காதல் பித்தேறி
எண்ணிடில் முன் போலி முதலான பொருளை  அவனாய் நினைந்து
மேல்விழுந்தான் மையல்தனின் வீறு.

 
bhagavAn gives divine (mAnasIka) anubhavam for nammAzhwAr first in this world itself. But then he leaves AzhwAr and AzhwAr feels immense sorrow in separation. With unlimited loving devotion towards bhagavAn, AzhwAr assumes a feminine form (parAngusa nAyaki) looks at objects that are similar to bhagavAn (and objects that are related to bhagavAn) and considers them to be bhagavan himself and becomes bewildered by the overwhelming emotions in seeing them.


108. sEshiyoruvanAnAl sEshavasthukkaLellAm orumidaRAyirukkumiRE. oruvanukkup palavadimai uNdAnAl thangaLil ellArgaLumoththiruppargaLiRE krutha sangEdhigaLAy.

சேஷியொருவனானால் சேஷவஸ்துக்களெல்லாம் ஒருமிடறாயிருக்குமிறே. ஒருவனுக்குப் பலவடிமை உண்டானால் தங்களில் எல்லார்களுமொத்திருப்பர்களிறே க்ருத ஸங்கேதிகளாய். 


 Our pUrvAchAryas spent their time discussing bhagavAn's glories with each other

bhagavAn is the supreme lord/master of  every one. All his devotees will have the same attitude. When there is a lord (in this world), all his servants will be equally position and spend their time discussing about their master all the time (Translator's note: similarly bhagavAn's devotees will spend their time talking about bhagavAn). 

Translator's note: krishNa reveals the nature and activities of his devotees in bhagavath gIthA 10.9.

machchiththA madh gatha prANA bOdhayantha: parasparam
kathayanthas cha mAm nithyam thushyanthi cha ramanthi cha

மச்சித்தா மத் கத ப்ராணா போதயந்த: பரஸ்பரம்
கதயந்தச் ச மாம் நித்யம் துஷ்யந்தி ச ரமந்தி ச

My devotees constantly remember me, they hold me as their life breath and discuss my activities amongst each other. By such discussions of my divine activities constantly, they (both the speakers and the listeners) derive great satisfaction and pleasure.
 

109. thannaiyozhintha vasthukkaLellAvaRRukkum kOti vikAraththaip paNNi avikruthanAyiruppAn oruvaniRE Isvaran.

தன்னையொழிந்த வஸ்துக்களெல்லாவற்றுக்கும் கோடி விகாரத்தைப் பண்ணி அவிக்ருதனாயிருப்பான் ஒருவனிறே ஈச்வரன்.


ArAvamuthan (thirukkudanthai - kumbakONam) - nammAzhwAr (AzhwAr thirunagari)

bhagavAn, the supreme master of everyone, is described as "avikArAya sudhdhAya" (unchangeable and pure) in sahasranAmam. While he is changeless, he induces changes in every one/thing that is different from him.

Translator's note: In thiruvAimozhi 4.8.1, nammAzhwAr glorifies thirukkudanthai ArAvamuthan's beauty and he is saying that emperumAn's beauty so great that it is melting AzhwAr down completely. There are other places where AzhwArs and AchAryas go through great emotions. Though, he is declared as avikAra (unchangeable) by sAsthram - it only means he is unchangeable by karmA - he becomes vikAra (changeable) and goes through various emotions out his own dhayA (kindness) and krupA (mercy) towards others.


110. vasthu sathbAvam koLLumpOthu visEshaNam vyAvarththakamAyallathirAthu. onRukkonRu visEshaNamAmpOthu, anyayOgavyavachchEdham paNNikkoNdallathu visEshaNamAgamAttAthu.

வஸ்து ஸத்பாவம் கொள்ளும்போது விசேஷணம் வ்யாவர்த்தகமாயல்லதிராது. ஒன்றுக்கொன்று விசேஷணமாம்போது, அந்யயோகவ்யவச்சேதம் பண்ணிக்கொண்டல்லது விசேஷணமாகமாட்டாது.

sAsthram which explains mOksham speaks about savisEsha brahmam (supreme lord with auspicious attributes/qualities). While understanding an entity, the unique attributes of that entity will differentiate that entity from all other entities. When something is identified as an (unique) attribute of a particular entity, unless it fully differentiates that entity from another one, it does not qualify to be an attribute of that entity. 

Translator's note:  ayOga vyavachchEtham means "an entity being identified by more than one attribute". anyayOga vyavachchEdham means "an entity being identified by a particular attribute which is unique to that entity alone". For example, anantha sAyithvam (lying down on serpent bed) is an attribute that is only applicable to srIman nArAyaNan and this attribute cannot be identified with any other entity.  This pankthi (sentence) is referred by nampiLLai in thiruvAimozhi 6.3.1 - "nalkuravum chelvum" (நல்குரவும் செல்வும்) - pAsuram. In this particular padhigam, bhagavAn's virudhdha vibhUthi (contradictory wealth) is explained - because he is the only substratum (focus) of both sentient and insentient objects - he is explained as having all kinds of contradictory aspects. For example, nammAzhwAr explains him as the abode of poverty and wealth, hell and heaven, enemity and friendship, etc. So, even though in reality, no entity can have contradictory attributes at the same time, since bhagavAn is the only abode of everything that is different from him, he does manifest such contradictory aspects/wealth in him. nammAzhwAr greatly enjoys this quality in emperumAn in this particular padhigam. (Note: Thanks to srI U. vE. gOmatam sampath kumArAchAryar swamy for patiently explaining this sentence when adiyen called him to have more clarity on this topic).


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